Cycles of cultural ages

An interesting read on Pravda concerning the cycle of cultural ages in Russia:

Russia’s Golden Age to start in 2013, Russian Nostradamus said: The end of 2012 marks the end of the Iron Age and the beginning of the Golden Age in Russia. This was predicted more than a hundred years ago by tsarist general and ethnographer Valentin Moshkov. Practically all of his gloomy predictions about the Iron Age have come true. Time will show whether his positive predictions are going to come true or not

When I read of predictions such as this, it reminds me of the words of the Preacher:

1 For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven:
2 a time to be born, and a time to die;
a time to plant, and a time to pluck up what is planted;
3 a time to kill, and a time to heal;
a time to break down, and a time to build up;
4 a time to weep, and a time to laugh;
a time to mourn, and a time to dance;
5 a time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together;
a time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;
6 a time to seek, and a time to lose;
a time to keep, and a time to cast away;
7 a time to tear, and a time to sew;
a time to keep silence, and a time to speak;
8 a time to love, and a time to hate;
a time for war, and a time for peace. Ecclesiastes 3:1-8 (ESV)

It also reminds me of God’s providence in the affairs of the world. When Nebuchadnezzar dreamed of a figure made of iron, clay, bronze, silver, and gold, Daniel interpretted the dream as such:

31 “You saw, O king, and behold, a great image. This image, mighty and of exceeding brightness, stood before you, and its appearance was frightening. 32 The head of this image was of fine gold, its chest and arms of silver, its middle and thighs of bronze, 33 kits legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. 34 As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold, all together were broken in pieces, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, so that not a trace of them could be found. But the stone that struck the image became pa great mountain and filled the whole earth.

36 “This was the dream. Now we will tell the king its interpretation. 37 You, O king, the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, and the might, and the glory, 38 and into whose hand he has given, wherever they dwell, the children of man, the beasts of the field, and the birds of the heavens, making you rule over them all—you are the head of gold. 39 Another kingdom inferior to you shall arise after you, and yet a third kingdom of bronze, which shall rule over all the earth. 40 And there shall be a fourth kingdom, strong as iron, because iron breaks to pieces and shatters all things. And like iron that crushes, it shall break and crush all these. 41 And as you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter’s clay and partly of iron, it shall be a divided kingdom, but some of the firmness of iron shall be in it, just as you saw iron mixed with the soft clay. 42 And as the toes of the feet were partly iron and partly clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong and partly brittle. 43 As you saw the iron mixed with soft clay, so they will mix with one another in marriage,3 but they will not hold together, just as iron does not mix with clay. 44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up ca kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever, 45 just as you saw that fa stone was cut from a mountain by no human hand, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold. A great God has made known to the king what shall be after this. The dream is certain, and its interpretation sure.” Daniel 2:31-45 (ESV)

All work and no play…

Some temptations are just too great for mere mortal men to resist:

Muscle Shoals police officer on administrative leave, accused of shooting deer on duty: A Muscle Shoals police officer is accused of shooting a deer on TVA property while on duty Sunday, according to The Times’ news partner, WHNT news 19.

 I have to admit that I feel sympathy for Officer Scoggins. Given that the TVA is a federally owned corporation, one would assume that hunting would be permitted on it, and per a page the TVA site, hunting is considered alongside other recreation activities. Hunting on TVA lands is also discussed on this forum, with the consensus there being that it is permissable.

I’m not a hunter, so I am not well versed on hunting laws in Alabama, but I am an anachronist (not anarchist), so I am inclined to support the notion that public lands, and most of TVA property should fit that definition, should be available for public use.

So if hunting is allowed, what is Officer Scoggins crime? Was engaging in personal affairs during work hours? This would be quite an extreme example of such, but again, hearkening back several generations, I think this wouldn’t have been given a second glance in our glorious “Mayberry” days. What would Sheriff Andy Taylor have done? Ol’ Andy would have bagged it and tagged it and invited all of his friends over to enjoy that with which the Lord had provided. There would have been deer barbeque, potato salad, and sweet tea for all.

Unfortunately, we don’t live in that simple time anymore. We live in a complicated world where everything has multiple consequences and simple actions have complicated responses. Was Officer Scoggins wrong to shoot the deer? I don’t know. One can only hope that someone swooped in to gather the carcass and turn it into something tasty.

The languages of J.R.R. Tolkien

Although being a Tolkien fan, I found The Hobbit a bit of a tedious read. I’m looking forward to the movie(s). The effort that was given to the building his fantasy world, even down to inventing languages, however, is very fascinating. The article below from the Oxford University Press blog exemplifies this.

The Naming of Hobbits:
By Michael Adams

It will be interesting to see how much of J.R.R. Tolkien’s several invented languages will appear in Peter Jackson’s The Hobbit. In a letter to his American publisher, dated 30 June 1955, Tolkien suspected there were limits to how much invented language readers would ‘stomach’ — to use his term. There are certainly limits to how much can be included in a film. American audiences, anyway, are subtitle averse.

Of Tolkien’s invented languages, Elvish receives most attention, not unreasonably, since it is illustrated most often in Tolkien’s works and most fully articulated in his manuscripts. Other languages are essential to The Lord of the Rings, however. When Gandalf reads out the delicately curved Elvish script on the One Ring in the rough-hewn Black Tongue of Mordor it represents so incongruously, Tolkien proves that some language — just the sound of it — can petrify us as surely as any Ringwraith. Tolkien’s languages aren’t suitable only for poetry or gnomic verses on rings. They also include the element of language most familiar to speakers speaking to one another every day, namely, names.

Tolkien as PhilologistWhen Tolkien came up with what sounded to him like a name, he would play with it a bit, experiment with its sound structure, and eventually a system of linguistically related names would emerge. Thus a family was invented, a family with relationships to other families in a mythical place, ready to take part in stories. As Tolkien explained in the letter already mentioned, “The ‘stories’ were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. To me a name comes first and the story follows.” And in his lecture on creating languages, ‘A Secret Vice’ (1931), he wrote “the making of language and mythology are related functions” and an invented language, at least one developed at length, will inevitably “breed a mythology.”
A slip written by J.R.R. Tolkien on the etymology of “walrus” during his years working for the Oxford English Dictionary. Image courtesy the Oxford University Press Archives.
Tolkien was always a philologist, whether in scholarship or fiction. He treated his fictional languages as though they were real, as though he were discovering rather than inventing them. In his scholarship, reconstruction of the sound system or grammar of languages like Old English and Old Norse was routine. For instance, he wrote ‘Appendix I: The Name “Nodens”’, in the Report on the Excavation of the Prehistoric, Roman, and Post-Roman Sites in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, published by the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London (1932). So, it isn’t in every library, but it has been helpfully reprinted in Volume 4 of the annual journal Tolkien Studies (2007). In it, you will find passages like this one: “Although it is perhaps vain to try and disentangle from the things told of Nuada any of the features of Nodens of the Silures in Gloucestershire, it is at least highly probably that the two were originally the same. This is borne out by the isolation of the name in Keltic [sic] material, the importance of Nuada (and of Nodens), and not least by the exact phonological equation of Nōdont- with later Nuadat.” This reads very much like a passage from one or another appendix to The Lord of the Rings, and if you read it without knowing it deals with a matter of linguistic and historical fact, you might well think it was fiction.

How to Name a BagginsMany names in Tolkien’s fiction are not invented, or, at least, not invented by him. Nearly all of the names of dwarfs in The Hobbit can be found in Dvergatal or ‘Tally of the Dwarfs’ in the Old Norse poetic Edda, as can the Old Norse precursors of Gandalf and Thorin’s nickname, Oakenshield. Hobbit names are an interesting blend of borrowed and invented items. For instance, a few males of the Baggins family of Hobbits sometimes bear real — though indisputably outmoded — personal names, such as Drogo (name popular among the French nobility c1000 CE, but since, not so much), Dudo (name of a tenth-century Norman historian and ecclesiast), and Otho (name of a Roman emperor). Other masculine names are converted from surnames or words found in natural languages, such as Balbo, Bingo, Fosco, Largo, Longo, Minto, Polo, and Ponto. But still others appear to be well and truly invented by Tolkien, such as Bilbo, Bungo, and Frodo. Perhaps they were invented to sound and look like the borrowed and converted names, but more likely those were found to fit patterns implied by the invented ones.
The 1937 Allen & Unwin hardback edition cover designed by Tolkien.
Many female Bagginses were given English flower names, such as Daisy, Lily, Myrtle, Pansy, Peony, and Poppy. Others had personal names common in English and other natural languages, for instance, Angelica, Dora, Linda, and Rosa. And a few bore personal names converted from surnames, like Belba, or historical but unfamiliar personal names, like Prisca (name of a Roman empress). The repurposing of such names and words as names of Hobbits may be inventive yet not count as an invention. Yet the invention is not of the names themselves — not most of them, anyway — but of linguistic relations among the names and social relations, embedded in the linguistics, among those to whom they belong.

The names have no actual relation to one another. They are borrowed from Italian and Scots and Norman French, or in those few cases made up. Tolkien brought them into relation by means of their sound shapes: the masculine names, whatever the source, and for whatever genuine etymological reason, are all two syllables and end in –o, which is proposed as a mark of the masculine name in the naming practices of Bagginses. For female Bagginses, the flower names are a fashion that obscures the way gender is marked in Baggins names: Belba, Dora, Linda, Prisca, and Rosa are marked with the contrasting feminine –a. Among all of the flower names, the –a names suggest a diminishing but tenacious historical tendency. But all language changes, as do naming practices, and any reconstruction of personal names in a historical language must account for remnant forms, anomalies, and generational trends.

There and Back AgainOther Hobbit clans have different types of names from those of the Bagginses. Brandybuck names have a distinctly Celtic shape, given the profuse –doc suffix: Gormadoc, Marmadoc, Saradoc, and, of course, Meriadoc. The Tooks prefer names from medieval romance and beast epic: Adelard, Ferumbras, Flambard, Fortinbras (rather than Armstrong, which has a quite different shape), Isengrim, and Sigismund, for instance. The Longfathers have names constructed from Anglo-Saxon elements: Hamfast and Samwise, in which –wise may mean, as it sometimes does in Anglo-Saxon, ‘sprout, stalk’. Over the generations, clan marries into clan, and the names mingle and develop new patterns: the names are the genealogical architecture of a culture.

Through alliances and friendships, Hobbit culture reticulates into the wider web of cultural relationships across Middle Earth and deep into the mythology of which the story of Middle Earth is only a part. The linguistic bases for cultural relationship and contrast are woven tightly and everywhere into the fabric of Tolkien’s fiction. In the middle of the mythological pattern, Tolkien has pricked in the –o and the –a, suffixes that say something about who the Bagginses are, or who they think they are, something that allows one Baggins to find the Ring and another to destroy it, just in time.

Michael Adams teaches English language and literature at Indiana University. In addition to editing and contributing to numerous linguistic journals, he is the author of Slang: The People’s Poetry and Slayer Slang: A Buffy the Vampire Slayer Lexicon, and he is the editor of From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages.

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Madison Belles

This past Saturday my oldest daughter and I were both in our town’s Christmas parade; Abby on her Girl Scout troop’s float, and me as a part of American Legion Post 229’s color guard. Behind me in the lineup were some of the most beautifully dressed young ladies I’ve seen. Assuming they were “Southern belles”, they tinkled along (apparently wearing bells) behind me for the length of the parade route. They were emaculately dressed in antebellum style dresses and wearing what appeared to be winter shawls on this not-too-cold Alabama evening.

Photo © Madison Weekly News

Having young daughters, I can imagine they would love to casually stroll through town in their antebellum finest, so I did a little research on who they are. According to the Madison Weekly News:

The young ladies of the Madison Belles bring the art of antebellum charm and wit, southern hospitality and historical authenticity to events in the Madison area.

Dawn Johnson, proprietor of Southern Traditions, a wholesaler of customized fine linens for the home, first organized the Belles in 2009. The Belles have since become ambassadors that represent Madison City in the best way possible.

The Madison Belles have been seen around Madison at events such as Connect 2011, the Madison City Street Festival and Parade, Bark in the Park, The Lighting of the Lights at city hall, and the First Lady’s Annual Tea.

“Being a Madison Belle is a part social, part charitable and part learning experience,” says Johnson. “These girls aren’t just fluff, they have to know their history.”

More information on the group is listed on the Southern Traditions website. Apparently there is quite a selection process to become a Madison Belle. Given my oldest in first grade, she has quite a few years to prepare.

I’m a big fan of the Antebellum era, minus the slavery. I think it was the high point in Southern culture. It was at this time that Southern honor was at its apex. In some areas of the South, you can still experience the hospitality that we have historically been known for. That’s what I like about anachronistic groups like the Madison Belles. They encompass all those good things we want to hold onto. I hope that someone in town can develop a male counterpart. Maybe then we can slowly, but surely restore that rich Southern heritage that seems to be so sadly diminished today.

The sinking of the Bounty

I’m not a sailing man (that would be my brother), but it’s sort of sad to read the account of the sinking of the Bounty:

‘Bounty Loves Hurricanes’: A Legendary Ship’s Final Hours Battling Sandy: As Hurricane Sandy approached the East Coast in late October, Captain Robin Walbridge wanted to save his ship, the legendary Bounty. He set out to sea to ride out the storm — a decision which ended in disaster. He lost the ship, a crewmember and his own life.